Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a means of crowdfunding centered around cryptocurrency, which can be a source of capital for startup companies. In an ICO, some quantity of the crowdfunded cryptocurrency is preallocated to investors in the form of "tokens," in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum. These tokens become functional units of currency if or when the ICO's funding goal is met and the project launches. ICOs provide a means by which start-up companies can avoid costs of regulatory compliance and intermediary financial organizations, while increasing risk for investors. ICOs may fall outside existing regulations or may need to be regulated depending on the nature of the project, or banned altogether in some jurisdictions, such as China and South Korea. (Source: Wikipedia)

Accelerating digital transformations: A playbook for utilities (January 2018): By Adrian Booth, Eelco de Jong, and Peter Peters - For utility companies, transforming operations and systems with digital technologies can create substantial value: a reduction in operating expenses of up to 25 percent, which can translate into lower revenue requirements or higher profits. Performance gains of 20 to 40 percent in such areas as safety, reliability, customer satisfaction, and regulatory compliance are also achievable. (Source: Mckinsey)

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