Construction is an installation and erection activities for procured equipment and materials at the site in accordance with approved construction drawings, document, procedures and specifications. The Construction requires large number of skilled construction labours and construction equipment until the plant is mechanically completed (M/C: Mechanical Completion). After the Construction activities are completed, the plant is handed over to the operation group with all required document. The Construction work comply with local laws and regulations, especially local labour laws, environment and safety requirement.
Constructability is to utilise of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement, and field operations to achieve overall project objectives. The Constructability reviews and studies including the construction abilities as a feasibility study including accessible and workable of construction labours and equipment; project equipment and material; maintenance equipment and people, and operation people considering the construction sequence. The Constructability reviews are required at various of project stages, for a site selection at the beginning stage, for development of overall plot plans at conceptual design and FEED stage, for finalization of detailed building and equipment layouts at detailed engineering stage, and for detailed construction planning at the EPC stage.
Construction Sequence means that the erection and installation sequence of project equipment and materials as well as the completion sequence of units, systems or subsystems based on the plant commissioning sequence. The Construction Sequence develops based on the minimization of the interference with engineering, procurement and operation activities, and the interface with inter-disciplinary activities at the site.
Erection Sequence is an order or series of equipment and facility erection or installation sequence, normally construction erection work starts from 1) underground works, 2) a tall and heavy equipment erection, 3) from the middle of plant area, 4) longest duration activities. The Construction Erection Sequence development requires considering of the equipment and material delivery schedule, engineering document and drawing release schedule as well as the construction erection equipment availability, accessibility and workable spaces.
Commissioning Sequences are 1) a Critical Utility Systems (e.g. control systems (DCS, SIS, F&G, electrical, air system and water system, etc.) will be pre-commissioned and commissioned early and ready for service for the other facility commissioning activities, and then 2) Non-critical Utility Systems (e.g. fuel, steam, demi water, etc.) will be placed into service as required to process facilities commissioning activities such as heater dry outs, proving hot oil circulation loop, amine loop proving, etc. These are completed prior to RFSU (Ready for Startup), and 3) the process systems are the last to be commissioned as they are typically commissioned, tightness tested and made ready for introducing hydrocarbon for the initial start-up.
Temporary Facilities are offices and accommodation buildings including warehouse, etc., utilities including water and electricity, etc., and infrastructures including access way, and security systems to be used for the construction activities. A Temporary Facility Plan is developed prior to the start of work at the site, develop a site plan showing the locations and dimensions of temporary facilities (including layouts and details, equipment and material storage area (onsite and offsite), and access and haul routes, avenues of ingress/egress to the fenced area and details of the fence installation. Identify any areas which may have to be graveled to prevent the tracking of mud. Indicate if the use of a supplemental or other staging area is desired. Show locations of safety and construction fences, site trailers, construction entrances, trash dumpsters, temporary sanitary facilities, and worker parking areas, etc.
Construction Management is for the maximize construction efficiency and minimise interferences with other activities at the site. The Construction Management is to control and manage the construction activities in accordance with the construction document and materials deliveries to the site as per the construction sequence. The Construction Management team evaluate and develop the optimum level (number) of construction labour mobilisation plan and minimisation of additional site works (e.g. re-do, preservation works etc.) by the quality and schedule control and management. A Construction Team mobilize in the beginning of the project for home office construction activities including development of construction execution plan (e.g. temporary facility planning and subcontracting plan) and constructability studies. They move or mobilize at the site when the construction drawings and materials are supporting site construction works and activities continuously without serious interference with engineering and procurement work, approximately 60% of engineering progress is achieved.
Construction Team Organisation (Site Organization) consists of site administration, field controls, field engineering, field material control, construction supervision (subcontractor management), safety (site), quality (quality control and inspection), pre-commissioning team and hand-over tam. The Construction Management Organisation is a normally a Project Task Force (TF) Organisation and full time assignment.
Construction Completion Management Tool is a computerised systematic software including a structured testing, commissioning and start-up of multi-discipline process plant and utilities, in accordance with project procedures, and to deliver safely a fully certified and documented operational plant.
Site Manager (or Construction Manager) is an overall responsible person for the project construction management at the construction site. The Site manager is required to keep within the timescale and budget of a project, and manage any delays or problems encountered on site during a construction project. Also involved in the role is the managing of quality control, health and safety (HSE), etc.
The Site Manager involves the project initiation and planning stage as a home office construction planning before site activities are commenced, and is responsible for managing communications between all parties involved in the site development of the project. The Site Manager ensures that drawing and materials are delivered on time and that construction resources such as construction subcontractor, construction equipment and tools, and required procedures, and construction utilities, and so on are available on the work site. The Site Manager is responsible for the construction budget, also for meeting with consultants, clients, engineers and inspectors including the day-to-day on site running of a construction project. The Site Manager is required to deal with inquiries and communication with the public.
A Construction Manager is a Site Manager of a small size of construction project. Normally, the Construction Manager is responsible for direct construction activities such as erection and installation of equipment and materials reporting to the Site Manager, and supported by construction superintendents, supervisors and construction subcontractors.
Field Engineering is one of the construction organization, perform the design and engineering work at the site. Primary responsibility is an interpretation of engineering design and document to the construction teams, supporting ad-hoc engineering related site activities including field material supply, gathering requested site information feedback to the Engineering division, and assisting engineering matter to operation and maintenance team. The Field Engineering team involves performing of completeness check and inspection of construction outcomes, and development of hand-over documentations.
Field Material Controls means that manage and control the delivered equipment and materials at the site. Responsible for materials receiving, provide a receiving inspection and issue the report (OS&D report), and warehouse management, inventory check and status reporting, and field material purchasing, and hand-over excess materials.
Field Fabrication is an assembling and installation of components at the job site. (e.g. piping pre-fabrication).
B. Construction Work Phase
Mechanical Completion (M/C) is a final phase of construction activities to verify that each installed component conforms to or is fabricated, installed and tested in accordance with the project specifications after all mechanical works are completed. The M/C is one of the project key milestone. When a Mechanical Completion is achieved, owner (client) release the Mechanical Completion Certificate (MCC) and a plant is handed over for the commissioning and operation activities from the construction (normally EPC Contractor) to the plant operation group (normally owner organisation).
Reference guide line is API 700 Plant Completion Checklist. Practically, some minor works can be transferred and/or performed during commissioning and operation which are not related safety and performance.
Pre-Commissioning (PC) is one of the construction activity that involves the verification of functional operability of elements within the system to achieve a state of readiness for the Commissioning and Start-up operation. Sometimes, for the pre-commissioning of Process units requires the completion of the commissioning activities of utility facilities. The Pre-commissioning may require an energisation of equipment includes the running and entire testing of the power generation systems, testing of emergency shutdown and control systems and dynamic trials prior to commissioning and start-up operations. The Pre-Commissioning activities should be completed prior to the achievement of the Mechanical Completion Certificate (MCC).
Commissioning is activities performed in getting process plant up and running to establish normal operation. As part of these activities It includes process verification and documenting that the facility and all of its system components and assemblies are designed, installed, tested and operated to meet the project requirement of individual units and systems. The Commissioning activity consists of checking and testing all functions according to their design parameters in conditions as close as possible to the design conditions, and includes performance tests on mechanical equipment, water washing, flushing and drying of equipment and piping as well as control systems operability and functionality. The Commissioning activities are performed after construction and pre-commissioning is completed.
Ready for Start-up (RFSU) means that a plant or facility is a mechanically completed and fully commissioned. The plant is ready to introduce the feed stock.
Performance Test is an assessment that requires an examinee to actually perform a task or activity, rather than individual tests or inspections referring to specific parts. The purpose of the Performance Test is to verify that the plant meets the specifications and contractual requirement.
Hand Over (or Turn Over) is a responsibility transfer work process, giving of care, custody, and control (CCC) for project to owner at the final stage of project after the plant is completed, inspected and tested. The Hand Over includes all constructed facilities and project document as specified in the contract, and it is one of the project close out activity.
Provisional Acceptance is a conditional acceptance but usually without specific conditions provisional. The Provisional Acceptance means owner has accepted the project but they need to have a verification or confirmation at the actual operation conditions within an agreed period.
Final Acceptance is an owner’s acceptance of a project from the contractor upon certification by the owner that it is complete and in accordance with the contract requirements. After the Final Acceptance is achieved, the plant is a permanently hand over to the owner.
C. Other Definitions
Fabrication is a manufacturing work process, to build or install or construct or assemble products or facilities using raw and semi-finished materials
Construction Allowance is a construction cutting waste. Bulk materials are supplied with manufacturer's standard size and length, and construction drawings are generated based on a process requirements and plot size. Also, construction allowance includes waste material quantities for construction fabrication or prefabrication mistake and errors. Construction allowance quantities (ratios of each bulk items) are added to the Engineering BM (Bill of Material) for purchasing.