Engineering is an application of the scientific principles and theoretical knowledge, and analysing and development of the design economically with technologies and experiences. Engineering design and document (deliverables) are generated and developed based on agreed design basis including specifications, codes and standards, and regulations. They are essential for goods manufacturing and facilities construction. Engineering disciplines of energy and chemical industries are process, mechanical, piping and pipeline, electrical, control system and instrumentation (CSI) and civil, Structural and architecture (CSA).
Design is a creation of the detailed plans from concept basis on the specifications, code and standards, and procedures for manufacturing and construction.
Conceptual Design is an initial design document for the feasibility study including operation capacities (feeds and products), screening of the process technologies, site (plant location) selection studies, high level process and basic documentations (BFD or PFD and overall plant layout), initial project schedule (Level 1) and budgetary cost estimate (-50 ~ +100%). The Conceptual Design result is the basis of FEED or Basic Engineering.
Feasibility Study is an analysis of the viability that a new project is technically feasible and will be profitable. The Feasibility analysis involves legal, economic, technology, estimate and schedule, environmental and other factors up to the completion of project as well as the normal operation. The Feasibility study is a preliminary study performed in the early stage of a project. Normally, for the accurate feasibility study may require a conceptual design or pre-FEED engineering and design work.
Front End Engineering Design (FEED) is for the evaluation of accurate TIC (Total Investment Cost) estimate and development of overall project execution planning, and preparation of tendering documentation for main EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) contractor selection, and to make a FID (final investment decision). The FEED engineering depth is similar to a basic engineering, and it is developed based on a conceptual engineering or pre-FEED results, and basis of a detailed design and engineering. The FEED engineering main outputs are process studies including process technology selection, process and utility configuration, and optimizations for a cost minimization, supporting documentation for permits and funding, EPC execution planning including EPC cost estimate (Accuracy: +/- 15 ~ 30%), EPC Schedule, EPC tendering document, and basis of detailed design and engineering document. Type of FEED is a light, normal and extended FEED based on engineering and deliverables and depth depend on the client's demand. The FEED is also called a Front End Engineering (FEE) or Front End Loading (FEL).
Basic Engineering is a basis of detailed design and engineering development for a construction. A cost estimate in the basic engineering phase may typically be refined to +/- 15 ~ 30%, and this is used as the project final investment decision (FID). In many cases this package may also be called as a front end engineering design (FEED) and used as an Invitation of Bidder (ITB) or tender package for the EPC Contract selection.
Detailed Design and Engineering is to develop all required construction documents and drawings up to AFC (Approved for Construction) stage for the construction, and detailed bill of materials (BOM) for the bulk material procurement based on the basic or front end engineering design (FEED) package. The Detailed Design and Engineering is limited to verifying design basis but producing all construction drawings after incorporating vendor information.
Engineering Management is a combining engineering and management skills with technical expertise to coordinate work in various technical fields including inter-discipline and external interfaces, and to solve technical issues and problems. The Engineering Management is focusing on the application of engineering principles for the effective planning and efficient operations of resources and technology.
C. Engineering Disciples
Engineering Discipline is the main disciplines: Civil, Computer, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering (67%) of all engineering bachelor’s degrees awarded annually. The medium four disciplines: Aerospace, Biomedical, Chemical, and Industrial/Manufacturing Engineering (20%), and the smaller ten disciplines: Agricultural, Architectural, Engineering Management, Engineering Physics/Engineering Science, Environmental, General Engineering Studies, Materials, Mining, Nuclear, and Petroleum Engineering (less than 10%), and the specialty disciplines: A variety of specialty disciplines offered (such as Ocean Engineering) that collectively account for less than 5% of all engineering bachelor’s degrees awarded annually.
Process Engineering is a branch of engineering discipline, focuses on a process technology selection, process and utility facilities configuration, integration and optimisation, and an equipment type selection considering the performance of production and economics with other disciplines support. A Process Engineer is responsible for the development of process design and engineering document including PFD, P&ID, Process Datasheet, etc. A Process Engineer is often to involve a collaboration of engineering and science, and a normal back ground of process engineer is a chemical engineer.
Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that applies principles of science technology and industrial engineering practices for the mechanical design and engineering, focuses on machines, structures, devices, mechanical systems, and energy conversion systems. The Mechanical Engineer is responsible for the development of mechanical data sheets and bid evaluations, and involves the production, construction, operation and maintenance of machineries.
Piping Engineering is an engineering discipline, focuses on the fluid mechanics: analysing the behavior of liquids and gases and using that knowledge in the design and development of fluid mechanics and piping systems. A Piping Engineer is responsible for design and engineering for the piping system including the plant layout (plot plans) development.
Pipeline Engineering is an engineering discipline, responsible for design and engineering for the long distance piping system (pipeline) effectively. Generally, a Pipeline project is executed as an independent project, and a Pipeline Engineer is covering for a project, process and piping and civil engineering matters.
Electrical Engineering is a part of the design and engineering discipline, deals with the electricity power system including power generation and distribution system, and electrical power system controls. An Electrical Engineer is responsible for the power generation, distribution and system control to develop the one-line diagram, electrical load list, electrical equipment datasheet, and distribution network drawing and document for electrical equipment and system in a plant. The Electrical Engineering is expanded to telecommunication systems.
Control System and Instrumentation (CSI) Engineering is one of engineering disciples, responsible for a Control Systems and Instrumentations (Former Instrumentation Engineering or Control System Engineering)
Control System Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to enable the plant control systems operated by Control and Instrumentation Engineers (CSI Engineer), focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem. A Control System Engineer is responsible for designing, developing, installing, managing and/or maintaining equipment which is used to monitor and control engineering systems, machinery and processes.
Instrumentation Engineering is a specialised branch of electrical and electronic engineering and it deals with measurement, control and automation of processes. In scientific terms, instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing area.
CSA (Civil, Structural and Architectural) Engineering
Civil Engineering is an engineering discipline, focuses on the design, engineering, construction and maintenance of a building, road, bridge, related infrastructure, and underground works such as a structure or equipment structures. A Civil Engineers design, build, and maintain the foundation, roads and bridges, water and energy systems, sea ports and airports, and the infrastructure for a cleaner environment, etc.
Structural Engineering is a part of the civil engineering, focuses on the design and engineering of all type of stationary structures.
Architectural Engineering is a part of the civil engineering, responsible for a building and structure design and engineering and construction.
Systems Engineering is focused on the design and management of complicated engineering projects, across a wide range of engineering specialties. In systems engineering, there is a combination of technical and project management skills required to complete multidisciplinary projects. Modelling, simulation, requirements analysis, project management and building consensus are all required tools in order to complete a complex project
Production Engineering is design and application of manufacturing techniques to produce a specific product. It includes activities such as planning, specification, and coordination of the use of resources, analysis of productibility, productions processes, and systems, application of methods, equipment, and tooling, controlled introduction of engineering changes, and application of cost control techniques.
Construction Engineering is to perform an engineering activity or work at the construction site. (refer to a Field Engineering)
Chemical Engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences and life sciences together with mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. It focuses on the chemical based manufacturing including: Fuels (gasoline, natural gas); Petrochemicals (chemicals obtained from petroleum or natural gas); Agricultural Chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides); Industrial Chemicals (acids, alkalis, organics, salts); Plastics, Polymers and Fibers; Paper and Paper Products; Pharmaceuticals and Drugs; Consumer Products (paints, soaps, household cleaners, etc.); Food Additives/Products; Advanced Materials (ceramics, electronic materials, composites, etc.)
Offshore Geotechnical Engineering is a sub-field of geotechnical engineering, focuses on the application of geological principles for the exploration or extraction of natural resources (oil, natural gas, coal, minerals, etc.). It is also concerned with foundation design, construction, maintenance and decommissioning for human-made structures in the sea including oil platforms, artificial islands and submarine pipelines, etc.
D. Other Definitions
Field Engineering is one of the construction organization, perform the design and engineering work at the Site. A primary responsibility is an interpretation of engineering design and document to the construction teams, supporting ad-hoc engineering related site activities including field material supply, gathering and feedback requested site information to the Engineering division, and assisting engineering matter to operation and maintenance team. The Field Engineering team involves performing of completeness check and inspection of construction outcomes, and development of hand-over documentations.